For the fundamental lesson was this: a counterterrorism architecture that is founded on criminal justice principles is fundamentally oriented to punishing those who have plotted or carried out attacks.But with the danger to innocent life posed by modern terrorism, prevention and not punishment becomes the critical driver for counterterrorism. This refashioning focused on three elements of the counterterrorism process: intelligence collection, information integration, and terrorist incapacitation.
During the 1970s and 80s, airline hijackings and overseas bombings were the focus of most terrorist activity.
In 1993, violent Islamist extremists bombed the World Trade Center, causing six deaths and more than a thousand injuries, but failing to significantly damage the structures themselves.
Below are four of the many dramatic impacts -- nationwide and in California -- resulting from the events of that one tragic day. Two years later, in March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq and deposed President Saddam Hussein. In August 2017, President Trump announced his intention to boost troop levels in the region in response to deteriorating security conditions.
Although not directly linked to the terrorist attacks, Hussein was suspected of producing weapons of mass destruction (none were ever found).
Rules designed to govern electronic surveillance in the days of fixed land-line communications were difficult to apply to communications media such as mobile, disposable telephones or voice over internet communications.
And even when terrorists were identified and apprehended, difficulties in providing evidence admissible in traditional courtroom proceedings left authorities with few avenues to detain or incapacitate them.
During the past decade, the United States government implemented US VISIT, a program that captures fingerprints from all foreign travelers entering the United States.
The government also exerted its right under the Chicago Aviation Convention to collect from the airlines commercial travel data relating to inbound travelers.
“9/11: Before and After.” 7, 10 Years After: The 9/11 Essays (September 2011).
https://org/articles/584 Until September 11, 2001, the United States had limited experience with terrorist attacks on our own soil, and only intermittent experience with attacks overseas.