However, we ran additional analyses including these countries as robustness checks.
We also developed separate models excluding Anglo-Saxon economies (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America) that, as previous studies showed, have a higher prevalence of obesity and easier access to fast food.
less than 30 minutes of moderate activity five times per week or less than 20 minutes of vigorous activity three times per week, or their equivalent) and consumption of fruits and vegetables (in kilograms per capita per year) in 2008.
These two values were obtained from the World Health Organization Global Infobase Our analyses also include three potential mediators of the association between fast food and BMI: consumption of animal fats (in kcal per capita per day); total caloric intake (in kcal per capita per day); and soft drink consumption (in litres per capita per year).
Mc Donald’s has played a major role, to spread the obesity in the United States, and they have been criticized to constantly, the role they had played in American culture, they have spread the aspects of the culture.
Mc Donald’s product offered because the obesity and people are in vulnerable conditions due to them as they support the much calories food.
Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Health Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, USA. showed that participants who visited fast food restaurants more than twice a week at baseline and were still doing so at a follow-up 15 years later had gained an average of 4.5 kg.
However, in a recent ecological analysis, the density of Subway outlets, used as a marker of fast food penetration, was positively associated with the prevalence of obesity across 26 advanced economies.
Although data on BMI are reported separately for men and women, we developed an overall indicator by estimating the female to male ratio using the proportion of female population from the World Development Indicators from 1999 to 2008., which is based on a scale from 1 to 100.
The score indicates the extent to which a country has adopted market deregulation policies.