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Many young patients being diagnosed with kidney stones is a matter of great concern.
This clinical content conforms to AAFP criteria for continuing medical education (CME). Kidney stones are a common disorder, with an annual incidence of eight cases per 1,000 adults.
During an episode of renal colic, the first priority is to rule out conditions requiring immediate referral to an emergency department, then to alleviate pain, preferably with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
The incidence of kidney stone formation in pediatric patients is increasing at a rate of about 5–10% every year.
Kidney stones are linked with higher risk of heart disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and reduced amount of minerals in the bones.
In a study that analyzed the urine samples of children with hypercalciuria (HC) and without HC, it was found that there was an increase in phosphaturia, magnesuria, uricosuria, citraturia and natriuresis among HC children with no lithiasis.
Research has proved that stone growth is dependent on the urine that is supersaturated in the pelvic region.
The morphologies of struvite, cystine, brushite, and calcium oxalate dehydrate crystals are similar to those of crystals developed in solutions whereas this is not true in the case of stones composed of calcium oxalate hydroxyapatite and monohydrate.
The results of a study attempting to find out whether there is a constant decline in the function of the kidney after the occurrence of first kidney stone have proved positives in developing chronic kidney disease.