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A large equilibrium constant implies that the reactants are converted almost entirely to products, so we can assume that the reaction proceeds 100% to completion.
There are two fundamental kinds of equilibrium problems: (1) those in which we are given the concentrations of the reactants and the products at equilibrium (or, more often, information that allows us to calculate these concentrations), and we are asked to calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction; and (2) those in which we are given the equilibrium constant and the initial concentrations of reactants, and we are asked to calculate the concentration of one or more substances at equilibrium.
In this section, we describe methods for solving both kinds of problems. Given: balanced equilibrium equation and composition of equilibrium mixture Asked for: equilibrium constant Strategy: Write the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction.
Otherwise, we must use the quadratic formula or some other approach.
The results we have obtained agree with the general observation that toxic NO, an ingredient of smog, does not form from atmospheric concentrations of N).
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Grobsky Types of Equilibrium Problems A typical equilibrium problem involves finding the equilibrium concentrations (or pressures) of reactants and products Initial concentrations (or pressures) are given Equilibrium constant is given General Procedure to Solve For Equilibrium Concentrations 1. The chemical equation, once written out, represents a chemical equilibrium Write the equilibrium expression List or calculate initial concentrations (or pressures) with information given If there are products present initially, calculate Q to make sure system is not already at equilibrium If Q ≠ K, set up an ICE table!This page contains links to guides to solving many of the the types of quantitative problems found in Chemistry 116.If you don't know where to start, try the links with the same name as the chapter the problem comes from. Make your own flashcards that can be shared with others.Learn with extra-efficient algorithm, developed by our team, to save your time.The table should now read: a A b B ⇌ d D e E I 0.750 1.500 0 0 C -ax -bx dx ex E 0.750-ax 1.500-bx dx ex The expressions for each species on the “E” line represent the concentrations of each species at equilibrium These expressions should now be substituted in the equilibrium expression Solve for unknown “x” Assumptions for ICE Table If K is small, assume x is negligible In other words: [A]int – x = [A]eq ≈ [A]int Remember, a small K means there are mostly reactants at equilibrium so initial quantities vary very little from final quantities Differences are negligible Assumptions for the ICE Table The 5% Rule of Thumb Once you solve for x, check to see if assumption is justified Divide “x” by initial concentration If error is less than 5%, then assumption was justified! If K is not small or error was greater than 5%, you must use quadratic formula to solve for x! A sample of phosgene gas, COCl2, is allowed to decompose: COCl2 (g) CO (g) Cl2 (g) The value of Kc for the equilibrium is 2.2 x 10-10 at 100 o C If the initial concentration of COCl2 is 0.095M, what will be the equilibrium concentrations for each of the species involved? COCl2 (g) ↔ CO (g) Cl2 (g) I 0.095 0.000 0.000 C -X X X E (0.095 -X) X X Kc = [ CO ] [Cl2 ] [ COCl2 ] = X2 (0.095 - X) Practice!To study the decomposition of hydrogen iodide, a student fills an evacuated 3 litre flask with 0.3 mol of HI gas and allows the reaction to proceed at 500 0C.At equilibrium he found the concentration of HI which is equal to 0.05 M.Then substitute the appropriate equilibrium concentrations into this equation to obtain Chemists are not often given the concentrations of all the substances, and they are not likely to measure the equilibrium concentrations of all the relevant substances for a particular system.In such cases, we can obtain the equilibrium concentrations from the initial concentrations of the reactants and the balanced chemical equation for the reaction, as long as the equilibrium concentration of one of the substances is known. Strategy: A Write the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction.