For additional studies on these topics, you can search Pub Med, which is the federal clearinghouse for all medical research. Abstract: “Corruption in general and doping in particular are ubiquitous in both amateur and professional sports and have taken the character of a systemic threat.
At bottom, we have also included some studies relating to cognitive-enhancing drugs and the related academic dimensions of this issue. In creating unfair advantages, doping distorts the level playing field in sporting competition.
Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal.
However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear.
Below is a selection of studies on a range of issues related to performance-enhancing drugs.
It has sections on their potential economic impacts, prevalence, health effects and athletes’ attitudes.Performance-enhancing drugs have a long history in sports, of course, but pharmacological research has led to a surge in the number of substances available, each with its own potential for misuse.Given the potential financial rewards of athletic success, it’s no surprise that we’ve been witness to a seemingly endless procession of allegations and scandals.Sluggers Barry Bonds (steroids) and Alex Rodriguez (human growth hormone); cyclists Lance Armstrong (EPO), Floyd Landis (testosterone) and Alberto Contador (clenbuterol); runners Tyson Gay (steroids) and Justin Gatlin (testosterone); and golfer Vijay Singh (IGF-1) are only some of the more prominent professionals implicated in such behavior.The complicity of medical professionals and shadowy labs is often involved, and a 2015 report from the International Cycling Union (UCI) found the sport’s own governing body bore significant responsibility.AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse.In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use.—————————- “The Economics of Corruption in Sports: The Special Case of Doping” Dimant, Eugen; Deutscher, Christian. With higher stakes involved, such distortions create negative externalities not only on the individual level (lasting health damages, for example) but also frictions on the aggregate level (such as loss of media interest) and erode the principle of sports.In this paper, we provide a comprehensive literature overview of the individual’s incentive to dope, the concomitant detrimental effects and respective countermeasures.We stress that in order to ensure clean sports and fair competition, more sophisticated measurement methods have to be formulated, and the respective data made publicly available in order to facilitate more extensive studies in the future. Abstract: “The difficulty of measuring the prevalence of doping in elite sport is a recurring topic in the scientific literature on doping.So far, the lack of data is alarming, especially in the area of elite sports where the stakes are high and doping has a substantial influence.” “The Frequency of Doping in Elite Sport: Results of a Replication Study” Pitsch, Werner; Emrich, Eike. The Randomized Response Technique is a method for asking such embarrassing or even threatening questions while allowing the respondents to answer honestly.