Compare And Contrast 1. Between-Subjects With Within-Subjects Designs

Compare And Contrast 1. Between-Subjects With Within-Subjects Designs-41
Again, the sequence of conditions is usually generated before any participants are tested, and each new participant is assigned to the next condition in the sequence.

Again, the sequence of conditions is usually generated before any participants are tested, and each new participant is assigned to the next condition in the sequence.

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Thus one way to assign participants to two conditions would be to flip a coin for each one.

If the coin lands heads, the participant is assigned to Condition A, and if it lands tails, the participant is assigned to Condition B.

Random assignment is a method for assigning participants in a sample to the different conditions, and it is an important element of all experimental research in psychology and other fields too.

In its strictest sense, random assignment should meet two criteria.

Do not confuse random assignment with random sampling.

Random sampling is a method for selecting a sample from a population, and it is rarely used in psychological research.However, for a fixed number of participants, it is statistically most efficient to divide them into equal-sized groups.It is standard practice, therefore, to use a kind of modified random assignment that keeps the number of participants in each group as similar as possible. In block randomization, all the conditions occur once in the sequence before any of them is repeated.One is that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to each condition (e.g., a 50% chance of being assigned to each of two conditions).The second is that each participant is assigned to a condition independently of other participants.Yet another reason is that even if random assignment does result in a confounding variable and therefore produces misleading results, this confound is likely to be detected when the experiment is replicated.The upshot is that random assignment to conditions—although not infallible in terms of controlling extraneous variables—is always considered a strength of a research design.In practice, a full sequence of conditions—one for each participant expected to be in the experiment—is usually created ahead of time, and each new participant is assigned to the next condition in the sequence as he or she is tested.When the procedure is computerized, the computer program often handles the random assignment.For three conditions, one could use a computer to generate a random integer from 1 to 3 for each participant.If the integer is 1, the participant is assigned to Condition A; if it is 2, the participant is assigned to Condition B; and if it is 3, the participant is assigned to Condition C.

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